(PDF) Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

Bitcoin Forum - bitcoinforum.com

We are [Bitcoin Forum](https://bitcoinforum.com). Bitcoin is an open-source peer-to-peer digital currency project. P2P means that there is no central authority to issue new money or keep track of transactions.
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All Bitcoin News. All Bitcoin discussion. All the time. BitcoinAll.

All Bitcoin News. All Bitcoin discussion. All the time. BitcoinAll.
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AllTheBitcoins: For Bitcoins, forks and orphans

Welcome to AllTheBitcoins: The subreddit appealing to supporters of all the competing implementations and forks of Bitcoin. You are welcome here no matter who you side with or which chain you consider to be the proper Bitcoin design.
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The Bitcoin Conspiracy (an enthusiast's perspective)

I keep coming across comments, especially in this sub, from people claiming that Bitcoin was created by the CIA or some government agency as part of the plan for the NWO and cashless society. I want to share my experience and try to clear up the confusion surrounding this topic.
I first got involved with Bitcoin in late 2016 when I heard about it and got some while at a libertarian festival. Back then it was still very popular among the agorist community and was being promoted as THE silver bullet that was going to disrupt the global fiat banking system.
Putting preconceptions aside, a new user might ask, "what's so special about Bitcoin? We already have digital currencies."
Well, you only need to read the first page of the whitepaper to discover what the original intent of Bitcoin was. It most definitely was not intended to be a tool for central banks to subjugate the world to a centralized global currency. Quite the opposite in fact. Read the full whitepaper here.
When I first learned about Bitcoin, it forced me to learn about economics, then the Federal Reserve, then one by one the dominoes fell and down the conspiracy rabbit hole I went. In 2017 (actually it started a few years earlier, but I wasn't paying attention back then) there was a very heated debate in the Bitcoin community regarding scaling.
I'll try to break it down simply:
In the very early days, when Bitcoin was just a project being worked on by a few very technical people, no one knew about it. All it took was a handful of people running the software on their laptops to mine new coins. Since there was not much computing power on the network, it meant there could easily be a spam attack where a malicious user could join the network and generate many gigabytes of spam transactions that would overload and crash the network. To prevent this, Satoshi implemented a limit of 1MB per block, to protect the network until there was enough computing power to be able to handle larger blocks.
This measure worked, and Bitcoin grew exponentially.
Satoshi vanished in 2010, after WikiLeaks attracted unwanted attention to the project by accepting Bitcoin donations. He left clear instructions for his successors that the 1MB block size limit was meant to be increased once the network could support high levels of user traffic. At the time, there still was not much use, so it wasn't until around 2014 that blocks started hitting the 1MB cap and all of a sudden users had to compete (by paying higher transaction fees) in order to get their transaction mined into the next block.
Up until then, sending a Bitcoin transaction would cost $0.0001 (hundredth of a penny) or less, no matter if you were sending $0.10 or $1,000,000. Now, since block space was limited, fees started to rise, as miners would only include the transactions with the highest fees. Over the next couple years, transaction fees went up dramatically, at times reaching as high as $100 to send a single transaction.
The solution was obvious - raise the block size limit.
But this led to a heated debate, and this is where the conspiracy became obvious to those who were paying attention. Since Bitcoin was decentralized and open source, anyone could contribute, but certain people controlled the commit access to the github repo, and it became apparent that those individuals had been compromised, as any and all mention of increasing the block size was met with fierce resistance.
There was a misinformation campaign to discredit anyone arguing for larger blocks. The argument was that larger blocks would mean users could not run the software on their low-power personal devices and laptops; that by increasing the block size it would lead to mining centralization. Well, if you read the whitepaper linked above, you'll see that Satoshi predicted this. He knew mining would eventually be left to "specialized server farms" while normal users could use what he termed Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) wallets.
But this point was consistently shot down in the community, and especially on /bitcoin. There was a MASSIVE censorship campaign in the bitcoin subreddit that continues to this day where anyone who questions the official narrative or even asks a basic technical question is immediately banned. /bitcoin today is nothing but a cesspit of price memes and misinformation. Go to /btc for the uncensored discussions (but beware of trolls).
In 2017 the debate was finally settled, sort of. Now known as "Bitcoin Core" (the name of the official Bitcoin software), the developers implemented a change known as SegWit (Segregated Witness) which fundamentally altered the way the software validates transactions. It was implemented as a "soft fork" rather than a "hard fork".
I'll explain the difference.
In a fork, the network comes to a consensus on new rules that all participants must follow. In a hard fork, the changes are non-backwards compatible, so all users must update their software or else be left behind on a dead network. Hard forks happen all the time in software development, but in the case of SegWit, the developers refused to make any non-backwards compatible changes for fear it might alienate users. Again, another unfounded fear. "We can't ever upgrade the technical capabilities of the network (such as the block size) because some people might not go along with it."
All kinds of mental gymnastics were performed to justify their refusal to increase the block size, and there was nothing anyone could do about it except fork as an independent project. The 1MB block limit is now essentially set in stone for BTC. So in August 2017, Bitcoin Cash (BCH) hard forked by increasing the block size limit to 8MB, along with some other changes.
Fast forward to December 2017 and Bitcoin was at its all time high of nearly $20,000. But fees were also astronomical and because of the 1MB block size limit, a huge backlog formed, and some people had to wait days or even weeks for their transaction to confirm. If anyone was trying to cash out into fiat and didn't want to pay a $100 transaction fee, by the time their transaction got confirmed the price had already crashed.
This event was largely responsible for the bear market of 2018. Everything that happened was predicted by those who knew what was going on.
A company called Blockstream had essentially wrestled control of Bitcoin from the original developers and shut them out or gained control over them, and started working on turning Bitcoin into a settlement layer for their product called Lightning Network.
LN is a complicated topic that I don't want to get into, but essentially it's a framework that recreates all the same problems inherent in the banking system that Bitcoin was meant to solve. Blockstream's goal is to profit from creating, and then "solving" those problems by charging users fees for all kinds of custodial services.
In my personal opinion, it's obvious that the original Bitcoin project has been hijacked and repurposed into a tool for the central banks. The propaganda is being pushed in some conspiracy circles that Bitcoin was created BY the central banks in order to discourage people from researching the true history. What is now commonly called "Bitcoin" is not the original project, but a Trojan horse.
The project that most closely follows the original design is Bitcoin Cash, and that is where almost all organic development is happening, and personally I feel that it's picking up steam lately as more people wake up to what's happening in the economy right now. Unfortunately most people are still unaware of how fundamentally broken BTC is now and so as new users run toward cryptocurrency to escape the dollar collapse, most will fall straight into the trap and be stuck with BTC that they won't be able to use without paying exorbitant fees and/or submitting to the very same tracking system they are trying to get away from.
This is a very deep rabbit hole but I think I've written enough for now. I hope this info helps people make sense of what's going on with Bitcoin. I know it's confusing enough even without so much deception taking place so hopefully this helps.
Read the Bitcoin FAQ over on /btc.
submitted by PM_ME_YOUR_ALTCOINS to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Crypto-Powered: Understanding Bitcoin, Ethereum, and DeFi

Crypto-Powered: Understanding Bitcoin, Ethereum, and DeFi
Until one understands the basics of this tech, they won’t be able to grasp or appreciate the impact it has on our digital bank, Genesis Block.
https://reddit.com/link/ho4bif/video/n0euarkifu951/player
This is the second post of Crypto-Powered — a new series that examines what it means for Genesis Block to be a digital bank that’s powered by crypto, blockchain, and decentralized protocols.
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Our previous post set the stage for this series. We discussed the state of consumer finance and how the success of today’s high-flying fintech unicorns will be short-lived as long as they’re building on legacy finance — a weak foundation that is ripe for massive disruption.
Instead, the future of consumer finance belongs to those who are deeply familiar with blockchain tech & decentralized protocols, build on it as the foundation, and know how to take it to the world. Like Genesis Block.
Today we begin our journey down the crypto rabbit hole. This post will be an important introduction for those still learning about Bitcoin, Ethereum, or DeFi (Decentralized Finance). This post (and the next few) will go into greater detail about how this technology gives Genesis Block an edge, a superpower, and an unfair advantage. Let’s dive in…
https://preview.redd.it/1ugdxoqjfu951.jpg?width=650&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=36edde1079c3cff5f6b15b8cd30e6c436626d5d8

Bitcoin: The First Cryptocurrency

There are plenty of online resources to learn about Bitcoin (Coinbase, Binance, Gemini, Naval, Alex Gladstein, Marc Andreessen, Chris Dixon). I don’t wanna spend a lot of time on that here, but let’s do a quick overview for those still getting ramped up.
Cryptocurrency is the most popular use-case of blockchain technology today. And Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency to be invented.
Bitcoin is the most decentralized of all crypto assets today — no government, company, or third party can control or censor it.
Bitcoin has two primary features (as do most other cryptocurrencies):
  1. Send Value You can send value to anyone, anywhere in the world. Nobody can intercept, delay or stop it — not even governments or financial institutions. Unlike with traditional money transfers or bank wires, there are no layers of middlemen. This results in a process that is much more cost-efficient. Some popular use-cases include remittances and cross-border payments.
  2. Store Value With nothing but a smartphone, you can become your own bank and store your own funds. Nobody can seize your assets. The funds are digital and stored on a blockchain. Your money no longer needs to be stored at a bank, in a vault, or under your mattress. I covered a few inspiring use-cases in a previous post. They include banking the unbanked, protecting assets from government seizure, mitigating the risk of a bank run, and protection against hyperinflation (like what recently happened in Venezuela).
The fact that there are so few things one can do with Bitcoin is one of its greatest strengths.
Its design is simple, elegant, and focused. It has been 10+ years since Satoshi’s white paper and no one has been able to crack or hack the Bitcoin network. With a market cap of $170B, there is plenty of incentive to try.
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Public Awareness

A few negative moments in Bitcoin’s history include the collapse of Mt. Gox — which resulted in hundreds of millions of customer funds being stolen — as well as Bitcoin’s role in dark markets like Silk Road — where Bitcoin arguably found its initial userbase.
However, like most breakthrough technology, Bitcoin is neither good nor bad. It’s neutral. People can use it for good or they can use it for evil. Thankfully, it’s being used less and less for illicit activity. Criminals are starting to understand that transactions on a blockchain are public and traceable — it’s exactly the type of system they usually try to avoid. And it’s true, at this point “a lot more” crimes are actually committed with fiat than crypto.
As a result, the perception of bitcoin and cryptocurrency has been changing over the years to a more positive light.
Bitcoin has even started to enter the world of media & entertainment. It’s been mentioned in Hollywood films like Spiderman: Into the Spider-Verse and in songs from major artists like Eminem. It’s been mentioned in countless TV shows like Billions, The Simpsons, Big Bang Theory, Gray’s Anatomy, Family Guy, and more.
As covid19 has ravaged economies and central banks have been printing money, Bitcoin has caught the attention of many legendary Wall Street investors like Paul Tudor Jones, saying that Bitcoin is a great bet against inflation (reminding him of Gold in the 1970s).
Cash App already lets their 25M users buy Bitcoin. It’s rumored that PayPal and Venmo will soon let their 325M users start buying Bitcoin. Bitcoin is by far the most dominant cryptocurrency and is showing no signs of slowing down. For more than a decade it has delivered on its core use-cases — being able to send or store value.
At this point, Bitcoin has very much entered the zeitgeist of modern pop culture — at least in the West.
https://preview.redd.it/dnuwbw8mfu951.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f1f135e3effee4574b5167901b80ced2c972bda

Ethereum: Programmable Money

When Ethereum launched in 2015, it opened up a world of new possibilities and use-cases for crypto. With Ethereum Smart Contracts (i.e. applications), this exciting new digital money (cryptocurrency) became a lot less dumb. Developers could now build applications that go beyond the simple use-cases of “send value” & “store value.” They could program cryptocurrency to have rules, behavior, and logic to respond to different inputs. And always enforced by code. Additional reading on Ethereum from Linda Xie or Vitalik Buterin.
Because these applications are built on blockchain technology (Ethereum), they preserve many of the same characteristics as Bitcoin: no one can stop, censor or shut down these apps because they are decentralized.
One of the first major use-cases on Ethereum was the ability to mint and create your own token, your own cryptocurrency. Many companies used this as a way to fundraise from the public. This led to the 2017 ICO bubble (Initial Coin Offerings). Some tokens — and the apps/networks they powered — were fascinating and innovative. Most tokens were pointless. And many tokens were outright scams. Additional token reading from Fred Ehrsam, Balaji, and Naval.
https://reddit.com/link/ho4bif/video/b5b1jh9ofu951/player

Digital Gold Rush

Just as tokens grew in popularity in 2017–2018, so did online marketplaces where these tokens could be bought, sold, and traded. This was a fledgling asset class — the merchants selling picks, axes, and shovels were finally starting to emerge.
I had a front-row seat — both as an investor and token creator. This was the Wild West with all the frontier drama & scandal that you’d expect.
Binance — now the world’s largest crypto exchange —was launched during this time. They along with many others (especially from Asia) made it really easy for speculators, traders, and degenerate gamblers to participate in these markets. Similar to other financial markets, the goal was straightforward: buy low and sell high.
https://preview.redd.it/tytsu5jnfu951.jpg?width=600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fe3425b7e4a71fa953b953f0c7f6eaff6504a0d1
That period left an embarrassing stain on our industry that we’ve still been trying to recover from. It was a period rampant with market manipulation, pump-and-dumps, and scams. To some extent, the crypto industry still suffers from that today, but it’s nothing compared to what it was then.
While the potential of getting filthy rich brought a lot of fly-by-nighters and charlatans into the industry, it also brought a lot of innovators, entrepreneurs, and builders.
The launch and growth of Ethereum has been an incredible technological breakthrough. As with past tech breakthroughs, it has led to a wave of innovation, experimentation, and development. The creativity around tokens, smart contracts, and decentralized applications has been fascinating to witness. Now a few years later, the fruits of those labors are starting to be realized.

DeFi: Decentralized Finance

So as a reminder, tokens are cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies can carry value. And value is a lot like money. Because tokens are natively integrated with Ethereum, it’s been natural for developers to build applications related to financial services — things like lending, borrowing, saving, investing, payments, and insurance. In the last few years, there has been a groundswell of developer momentum building in this area of financial protocols. This segment of the industry is known as DeFi (Decentralized Finance).
https://preview.redd.it/f0sjzqspfu951.png?width=461&format=png&auto=webp&s=8e0a31bf29250fc624918fbd8514b008762f379e
In Q2 of 2020, 97% of all Ethereum activity was DeFi-related. Total DeFi transaction volume has reached $11.5B. The current value locked inside DeFi protocols is approaching $2 Billion (double from a month ago). DeFi’s meteoric growth cannot be ignored.
Most of that growth can be attributed to exciting protocols like Compound, Maker, Synthetix, Balancer, Aave, dYdX, and Uniswap. These DeFi protocols and the financial services they offer are quickly becoming some of the most popular use-cases for blockchain technology today.
https://preview.redd.it/wn3phnkqfu951.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=02f56caa6b94aa59eadd6e368ef9346ba10c7611
This impressive growth in DeFi certainly hasn’t come without growing pains. Unlike with Bitcoin, there are near-infinite applications one can develop on Ethereum. Sometimes bugs (or typos) can slip through code reviews, testing, and audits — resulting in loss of funds.
Our next post will go much deeper on DeFi.

Wrap Up

I know that for the hardcore crypto people, what we covered today is nothing new. But for those who are still getting up to speed, welcome! I hope this was helpful and that it fuels your interest to learn more.
Until you understand the basics of this technology, you won’t be able to fully appreciate the impact that it has on our new digital bank, Genesis Block. You won’t be able to understand the implications, how it relates, or how it helps.
After today’s post, some of you probably have a lot more questions. What are specific examples or use-cases of DeFi? Why does it need to be on a blockchain? What benefits does it bring to Genesis Block and our users?
In upcoming posts, we answer these questions. Today’s post was just Level 1. It set the foundation for where we’re headed next: even deeper down the crypto rabbit hole.
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Other Ways to Consume Today's Episode:
We have a lot more content coming. Be sure to follow our channels: https://genesisblock.com/follow/
Have you already downloaded the app? We're Genesis Block, a new digital bank that's powered by crypto & decentralized protocols. The app is live in the App Store (iOS & Android). Get the link to download at https://genesisblock.com/download
submitted by mickhagen to genesisblockhq [link] [comments]

We now know the answer to the "mystery" of why Craig failed his Theory of Computation class. It turns out a decade before he took the class Craig got and then recovered from cancer. The 10+ year old memory of his cancer made him understandably unable to pass his class.

In another thread someone linked Craig's transcript (which Craig himself has made publicly available on the website of the company he's Chief Scientist at), and I remarked:
My favourite parts of that transcript dump are Craig's grades, which range from mediocre to actively terrible, and that it shows Craig literally failing the course that would have taught him what Turing Complete meant.
To which a CSW super-fan replied:
You mean when he didn't receive credits because he had dropped out temporarily because he had cancer.
Craig had and then recovered from cancer in his early 20s, and he failed his Theory of Computation class in 2006, when he was in his mid-30s. His temporary cancer from a decade earlier somehow affecting his ability to pass a course makes about as much sense as anything else coming from the BSV camp, so why not? Maybe cancer is the reason for every other dumb thing Craig says.
Craig: "I'm Satoshi."
That's the cancer he had and recovered from over two decades ago talking
Craig: "Bitcoin Script is Turing Complete"
That's again his former cancer talking.
submitted by Zectro to bsv [link] [comments]

Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry

Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry
Link to original article: https://block.co/benefits-of-blockchain-technology-in-the-banking-industry/
The rapidly growing interest around blockchain is creating an increased amount of use cases across multiple industries, and a high demand for adoption by many governments. Banking, financial services, and insurance (BFSI) industry is predicted to be drastically transformed by this disruptive technology. According to Allied Market Research 2019, the blockchain value in the BFSI market reached $277.1 million in 2018 and is projected to reach $22.46 billion by 2026. Blockchain technology has the potential to solve the pain points of the current banking systems and operations including security, transparency, trust, privacy, programmability, and performance.
What is Blockchain?
Blockchain is the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, that was proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, as a response to the failing financial system during the crisis. It is often associated and confused with Bitcoin, but the scope of the technology is much wider. It is also important to differentiate between the Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and blockchain, as the terms often used interchangeably. All blockchains are DLT, but not all DLTs are blockchains. DLT is simply a decentralized database managed on a peer-to-peer basis.
“Blockchain is a type of DLT, a subcategory of a more broad definition, much like how the word ‘car’ falls under the umbrella term ‘vehicles’ and ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ falls under ‘geniuses’.”
In essence, blockchain is a continuous sequential chain of records (‘blocks’) that are chronologically linked together with the aid of cryptography, to ensure immutability. These records are immutable, as any change to the information recorded in a particular block is stored in a new block. Moreover, the use of modern encryption algorithms enables the security of all the records from copying or editing by other users of the system. Blockchain can be programmed to record not only financial transactions as cryptocurrency but almost anything of value (Deloitte Insights, 2019).

https://preview.redd.it/k76j8u5401751.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=e7f6573a230c816a112ae4bf561f3501c353ad32
How Blockchain Can Improve Banking Industry?
The modern banking system is not perfect and commercial banks have not changed a lot to their servicing structure since the 1970s (Haycock & Richmond, 2015). Running a bank still requires large numbers of the workforce, reliance on quite outdated systems, bloated structures with high probabilities of human error, and manual work. There are several aspects, which could be improved by the application of blockchain technology in banking operations:
1) Security Enhancement
In the UK the overall value of the financial fraud losses (e.g. payment cards, remote banking, cheques) equaled £844.8 million in 2018. The situation is even worse in the US — $170 billion average yearly losses in the financial sector. According to KPMG’s Global Banking Fraud Survey 2019 the total volume, number, and value of the fraudulent activities are drastically increasing every year.
The nature of banking operations dictates the need for centralized systems, which proved to be vulnerable and subject to cyber and hack attacks. Now, the blockchain is immutable as it operates on the principles of decentralization and transparency, and all the network participants get an identical copy of the distributed ledger of transactions. Thus, if applied in banking, blockchain can increase the validity and security of the financial transactions, eliminate the need for third-party authentication, and solve the issue of a single point of failure and hacks.
Moreover, since each transaction on the blockchain has its unique fingerprint (hash) it can be easily traced and verified. Such functionality makes blockchain a great tool to combat money laundering and reduce fraudulent or illegal transactions (Guo & Liang, 2016).
2) Improving Financial Transactions Efficiency
As we mentioned previously, the utilization of obsolete mechanisms and operational systems slows down the performance of banking institutions and provides ground for human error, delays, and system failures. All these inefficiencies could be solved by applying blockchain technology. Take for example the time-consuming bilateral exchange. The process of data reconciliation needed for it could be simplified, as on the blockchain, it is inherently part of a transaction (IBM, 2016).
Blockchain and its decentralized nature eliminate intermediaries in banking operations, which significantly cuts transaction costs and boosts efficiency (Cocco et al., 2017). Blockchain does not require intermediaries, enables cross-border transfers and micro-payments, while drastically decreasing operational costs. Such transactions in the traditional banking environment are expensive (from 1% of the amount), and constitute a huge expense on a global scale. In cryptocurrency networks, transfers may range from a few minutes down to milliseconds, and the transaction fees are decided by the market forces, meaning users have the option to set their transaction fees (Deloitte, 2017).
3) Workflow Simplification
Blockchain can simplify the current complex workflow in banking institutions. As any operation can be traced, the ability to automate processes significantly reduces costs and the need for manual work. Moreover, it is impossible to make retroactive changes on the blockchain. This guarantees data immutability and excludes the human factor, thus the probability of error, data tampering, or even leakage. Using blockchain in banking operations will digitize and automate tons of manual work, greatly boost the productivity of the financial institutions and eliminate the probability of mistakes, delays, and errors.
4) Enhanced KYC & AML
Some financial institutions find it difficult to deal with problems related to policies such as Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC). Numerous organizations are not able to solve these problems, due to the rapidly escalating costs. The adoption of the blockchain technology will enable the creation of a system where all clients’ information may be stored safely, making the independent verification an easy process or even automated securely. In this way, both AML and KYC processes will become simpler and easier, as all involved organizations will share the same system and the information will be updated in real-time, perhaps through the use of Digital Identities. In addition to this, blockchain technology will assist the organizations to minimize their administrative costs and reduce the workload.

https://preview.redd.it/200e0ap701751.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=6caaf26c53786c1341b7905ca33dd340f8929059
5) Smart Contracts
Smart contracts are an innovative development of blockchain technology which enables for time and resources saving, as they do not require a third-party interaction. Traditional contracts do not differ a lot from smart contracts, however, their key benefit is that obligations are automatically enforced and cannot be avoided by anyone.
When smart contracts are integrated with blockchain technology, we enjoy benefits such as security, automation, immutability, and transparency. The integration of smart contracts in the financial sector will provide opportunities for transparent auditing and real-time remittances. Traditional contracts are paper-based and require financial institutions to invest money in paperwork and maintain records. These records can be easily manipulated as they are on paper. Smart contracts offer bank tools for bookkeeping based on blockchain. Smart contracts have already been applied to the financial industry to gain greater automation.
6) Decentralized Finance
Another application of blockchain is Decentralized Finance, also known as DeFi. This application is at an early stage but its disruptiveness enables millions of people across the world to have access to financial services. DeFi refers to decentralized applications, financial smart contracts, digital assets as well as protocols popular as DApps, which are built on public blockchains such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. The aim of DeFi is the creation of a decentralized financial system that will not depend on the traditional banking system.
Decentralized Finance offers numerous benefits to the users as it eliminates middlemen, enables everyone who does not has access to financial services to enter the global economy as it is a permission-less technology, and enables innovation with the combination of DeFi products. Besides, the use of decentralized finance increases the symmetry of information and democratizes financial services in this sense. The evolution of DeFi over the years means that most people around the world are only limited by their imagination when considering how to gain benefits from the financial ecosystem. However, there are still many complexities that need addressing to further expand the full extent of the possibilities of DeFi.
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [email protected].
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The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

https://preview.redd.it/w6v3l8n3zxu41.jpg?width=2551&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fb0338a36a1a321d3781f43ff5eb6929d8b92edc
Summary: Bitcoin was invented by the anonymous Satoshi Nakamoto as recently as 2008, but it is backed up by a rich intellectual foundation. For instance, The 1776 First Amendment separates church and state, and contemporary American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) argues that money and state should similarly be separated. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the anonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto's desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. Indeed, Bloomberg's 2020 report confirms Bitcoin to be gold 2.0. Montesquieu (1774) asserted that laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature, and the natural laws employed in Bitcoin include its consensus algorithm and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand). J.S. Mill (1859) preferred free markets to those controlled by governments. Ludwig von Mises (1951) argued against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. Friedrich Hayek (1984) suggested people to invent a sly way to take money back from the hands of the government. Milton Friedman (1994) called for FED to be replaced by an automatic system and predicted the coming of a reliable e-cash. James Buchanan (1988) advocated a monetary constitution to constrain the governmental power of money creation. Tim May (1997) the cypherpunk proclaimed that restricting digital cash impinges on free speech, and envisioned a stateless digital form of money that is uncensorable. The Tofflers (2006) pictured a non-monetary economy. In 2016, UCLA Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry even nominated Satoshi for a Nobel Prize.
Full Text:
Separation between money and state
The 1791 First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution enshrines free speech and separates church and state, but not money and state. "Under the First Amendment, individuals’ right to create, choose their own money and transact freely was not recognized as a part of freedom of expression that needs to be protected," Japanese-American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) points out (1).
The government, banks and corporations collude together to encroach upon people's liberties by metamorphosing their inalienable rights into a permissioned from of legal rights. Fiat currencies function as a medium of manipulation, indulging big business to generate market monopolies. "Freedom of expression has become further stifled through economic censorship and financial blockage enacted by payment processing companies like Visa and MasterCard," to borrow Hayase's (2020) words.
Satoshi is a Modern Newton
Although most famous for discovering the law of gravity, Isaac Newton was also a practising alchemist. He never managed to turn lead into gold, but he did find a way to transmute silver into gold. In 1717, Newton announced in a report that, based on his studies, one gold guinea coin weighed 21 shillings. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. "In a way, Satoshi is a modern Newton. They both believed trust is best placed in the unchangeable facets of our economy. Beneath this belief is the assumption that each individual is their own best master," as put by Jon Creasy (2019) (2).
J.S. Mill: free markets preferable to those controlled by governments
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) the great English philosopher would be a Bitcoiner were he still around today. In On Liberty (1859), Mill concludes that free markets are preferable to those controlled by governments. He argues that economies function best when left to their own devices. Therefore, government intervention, though theoretically permissible, would be counterproductive. Bitcoin is precisely decentralized or uncontrolled by the government, unconfiscatable, permissonless, and disinflationary. Bitcoin regulates itself spontaneously via the ordinary operations of the system. "Rules are enforced without applying any external pressure," in Hayase's (2020) words.
Ludwig von Mises (1958): Liberty is always Freedom from the Government
In The Free Market and its Enemies, theoretical Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1951) argues against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. “A fiat money system cannot go on forever and must one day come to an end,” Von Mises states. The solution is a return to the gold standard, "the only standard which makes the determination of the purchasing power of money independent of the changing ideas of political parties, governments, and pressure groups" under present conditions. Interestingly, this is also one of the key structural attributes of Bitcoin, the world’s first, global, peer-to-peer, decentralized value transfer network.
Actually, Bloomberg's 2020 report on Bitcoin confirms that it is gold 2.0. (3)
Von Mises prefers the price of gold to be determined according to the contemporaneous market conditions. The bitcoin price is, of course, determined across the various global online exchanges, in real-time. There is no central authority setting a spot price for gold after the which the market value is settled on among the traders during the day.
Hayek: Monopoly on Currency should End
Austrian-British Nobel laureate Friedrich Hayek’s theory in his 1976 work, Denationalization of Money, was that not only would the currency monopoly be taken away from the government, but that the monopoly on currency itself should end with multiple alternative currencies competing for acceptance by consumers, in order "to prevent the bouts of acute inflation and deflation which have played the world for the past 60 years." He forcefully argues that if there is no free competition between different currencies within any nation, then there will be no free market. Bitcoin is, again, decentralized, and many other cryptocurrencies have tried to compete with it, though in vain.
In a recently rediscovered video clip from 1984, Hayek actually suggested people to invent a cunning way to take money out of the hands of the government:- “I don’t believe we shall ever have a good money again before we take the thing out of the hands of government, that is, we can’t take them violently out of the hands of government, all we can do is by some sly roundabout way introduce something they can’t stop” (4). Reviewing those words 36 years hence and it is difficult not to interpret them in the light of Bitcoin.
Milton Friedman Called for FED to be Replaced by an Automatic System
Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman (1994) was critical of the Federal Reserve due to its poor performance and felt it should be abolished (5). Friedman (1999) believed that the Federal Reserve System should ultimately be replaced with a computer program, which makes us think of the computer code governing Bitcoin (6).[\](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Federal_Reserve#cite_note-:2-12) He (1970) favored a system that would automatically buy and sell securities in response to changes in the money supply. This, he argued, would put a lid on inflation, setting spending and investment decisions on a surer footing (7). Bitcoin is exactly disflationary as its maximum possible supply is 21 million and its block reward or production rate is halved every four years.
Friedman passed away before the coming of bitcoin, but he lived long enough to see the Internet’s spectacular rise throughout the 1990s. “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government," said Friedman in a 1999 interview with NTU/F. On the same occasion, he sort of predicted the emergence of Bitcoin, "The one thing that’s missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash, a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B, without A knowing B or B knowing A." (8)
Of course, Friedman didnt predict the block chain, summed up American libertarian economist Jeffery Tucker (2014). “But he was hoping for a trustless system. He saw the need. (9).
Bitcoin Computer Code as Constitution in the Buchananian Sense
American economist cum Nobel laureate James Buchanan (1988) advocates constitutional constraints on the governmental power to create money (10). Buchanan distinguishes a managed monetary system—a system “that embodies the instrumental use of price-level predictability as a norm of policy”—from an automatic monetary system, “which does not, at any stage, involve the absolute price level” (Buchanan 1962, 164–65). Leaning toward the latter, Buchanan argues that automatic systems are characterized by an organization “of the institutions of private decision-making in such a way that the desired monetary predictability will emerge spontaneously from the ordinary operations of the system” (Buchanan 1962, 164). Again, "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone" (Hayase 2020).
Shruti Rajagopalan (2018) argues that the computer code governing how the sundry nodes/computers within the Bitcoin network interact with one another is a kind of monetary constitution in the Buchananian sense. One of Buchanan's greatest inputs is to differentiate the choice of rules from the choice within rule (Buchanan 1990). One may regard the Bitcoin code as a sort of constitution and "the Bitcoin network engaging in both the choice of rules and choice within rules" (Rajagopalan 2018) (11).
Tim May: Restricting Digital Cash may Impinge on Free Speech
Cypherpunks are activists who since the 1980s have advocated global use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political liberation. Tim May (Timothy C. May [1951-2018]), one of the influential cypherpunks published The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto in September 1992, which foretold the coming of Bitcoin (12). Cypherpunks began envisioning a stateless digital form of money that cannot be censored and their collaborative pursuit created a movement akin to the 18th Enlightenment.
At The 7th Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy, Burlingame, CA. in 1997, Tim May equated money with speech, and argued that restricting digital cash may impinge on free speech, for spending money is often a matter of communicating orders to others, to transfer funds, to release funds, etc. In fact, most financial instruments are contracts or orders, instead of physical specie or banknotes (13).
Montesquieu: Laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature
In his influential work The Spirit of Laws (1748), Montesquieu wrote, “Laws ... are derived from the nature of things … Law, like mathematics, has its objective structure, which no arbitrary whim can alter". Similarly, once a block is added to the end of the Bitcoin blockchain, it is almost impossible to go back and alter the contents of the block, unless every single block after it on the blockchain is altered, too.
Cypherpunks knew that whereas alienable rights that are bestowed by law can be deprived by legislation, inalienable rights are not to be created but can be discovered by reason. Thus, laws that secure inalienable rights cannot be created by humankind but can be found in nature.
The natural laws employed in Bitcoin to enshrine the inalienable monetary right of every human being include its consensus algorithm, and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand) as identified by Adam Smith, father of modern economics.
Regarding mathematics, bitcoin mining is performed by high-powered computers that solve complex computational math problems. When computers solve these complex math problems on the Bitcoin network, they produce new bitcoin. And by solving computational math problems, bitcoin miners make the Bitcoin payment network trustworthy and secure, by verifying its transaction information.
Regarding economic laws, in accordance with the principle of game theory to generate fairness, miners take part in an open competition. Lining up self-interests of all in a network, with a vigilant balance of risk and rewards, rules are put in force sans the application of any exterior pressure. "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone," to borrow the words of Hayase (2020).
A Non-monetary Economy as Visualized by the Tofflers
In their book, Revolutionary Wealth (2006), futurists Alvin Toffler and his wife Heidi Toffler toy with the concept of a world sans money, raising a third kind of economic transaction that is neither one-on-one barter nor monetary exchange. In the end, they settle on the idea that the newer non-monetary economy will exist shoulder-to-shoulder with the monetary sector in the short term, although the latter may eventually be eclipsed by the former in the long run. What both the Tofflers' The Third Wave (1980) and Revolutionary Wealth bring into question is the very premise of monetary exchange. The vacuum left over by cash in such a non-monetary economy may be filled up by Bitcoin as a cryptocurrency.
Satoshi Nakamoto Nominated for Nobel Prize by UCLA Finance Prof.
UCLA Anderson School Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry nominated Satoshi Nakamoto for the 2016 Nobel Prize in Economics on the following grounds:-
It is secure, relying on almost unbreakable cryptographic code, can be divided into millions of smaller sub-units, and can be transferred securely and nearly instantaneously from one person to any other person in the world with access to internet bypassing governments, central banks and financial intermediaries such as Visa, Mastercard, Paypal or commercial banks eliminating time delays and transactions costs.... Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin Protocol has spawned exciting innovations in the FinTech space by showing how many financial contracts — not just currencies — can be digitized, securely verified and stored, and transferred instantaneously from one party to another (14).
Fb link: https://www.facebook.com/hongkongbilingualnews/posts/947121432392288?__tn__=-R
Web link: https://www.hkbnews.net/post/the-intellectual-foundation-of-bitcoin%E6%AF%94%E7%89%B9%E5%B9%A3%E7%9A%84%E6%99%BA%E8%AD%98%E5%9F%BA%E7%A4%8E-by-chapman-chen-hkbnews
Disclaimer: This article is neither an advertisement nor professional financial advice.
End-notes
  1. https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/bitcoin-is-the-technology-of-dissent-that-secures-individual-liberties
  2. https://medium.com/hackernoon/why-sir-isaac-newton-was-the-first-bitcoin-maximalist-195a17cb6c34
  3. https://data.bloomberglp.com/professional/sites/10/Bloomberg-Crypto-Outlook-April-2020.pdf
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYhEDxFwFRU&t=1161s
  5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6fkdagNrjI
  6. http://youtu.be/mlwxdyLnMXM
  7. https://miltonfriedman.hoover.org/friedman_images/Collections/2016c21/IEA_1970.pdf
  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MnQJFEVY7s
  9. https://www.coindesk.com/economist-milton-friedman-predicted-bitcoin
  10. https://www.aier.org/research/prospects-for-a-monetary-constitution/
  11. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3238472
  12. https://www.activism.net/cypherpunk/crypto-anarchy.html
  13. http://osaka.law.miami.edu/~froomkin/articles/tcmay.htm
  14. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/i-shall-happily-accept-th_b_8462028
Pic credit: Framingbitcoin
#bitcoin #bitcoinhalving #jamesBuchanan #MiltonFriedman #AlvinToffler #FirstAmendment #LudwigVonMises #TimMay #freeMarket # SatoshiNakamoto #FriedrichHayek #Cypherpunk #Cryptocurrency #GoldStandard #IsaacNewton
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Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

https://preview.redd.it/s2gmpmeze3151.png?width=256&format=png&auto=webp&s=9759910dd3c4a15b83f55b827d1899fb2fdd3de1

1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
https://preview.redd.it/t1j6anf8f3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=33bd141d8f2136a6f32739c8cdc7aae2e04cbc47

Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

https://preview.redd.it/m6texxicf3151.png?width=1591&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4253304912ed8370948b9c524e08fef28f1c78d

Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
https://preview.redd.it/depya70mf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6499aa2131fbf347f8ffd812930b2f7d66be48e
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
https://preview.redd.it/cy56icarf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=b239a63c6a87ec6cc1b18ce2cbd0355f8831c3a8
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/hjeqe4l7g3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=8014fb08fe62ac4d91645499bc0c7e1c04c5d7c4
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
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هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین

هاوینگ بیت کوین ۲۳ اردیبهشت اتفاق خواهد افتاد. اما هاونیگ بیت کوین چیست؟ تاثیر هایونگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چه خواهد بود؟ چه معنایی برای استخراج‌کنندگان و چشم‌انداز بلند مدت ارزهای دیجیتال خواهد داشت؟ برای پاسخ به این سوالات با ما همراه باشید.

این مطلب در یک نگاه …

۰. سه نظریه درباره تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین ۰. شرخی کوتاه از هاوینگ بیت کوین
مفصل‌تر بخوانید … ۱. مقدمه ۲. هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست ؟ ۳. چه کسی زمان‌بندی توزیع بیت کوین را تعیین کرده است؟ چرا؟ ۴. تأثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چگونه است؟ ۵. چرا استخراج کنندگان پاداش دریافت می‌کنند؟ ۶. چه اتفاقی می‌افتد اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کم شود؟ ۷. جمع‌بندی

۰. سه نظریه درباره تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

یک

برخی اعتقاد دارند که با کاهش نرخ بیت کوین‌هایی که ماینرها می‌توانند به سیستم تزریق کنند، و با فرض ثابت ماند تقاضا، ارزش بیت کوین بیشتر می‌شود. این تئوری به این شکل است که زمانی که عرضه بیت کوین کاهش می‌یابد، تقاضا برای آن ثابت باقی می‌ماند و قیمت را بالا می‌برد. اگر این نظریه صحیح باشد، ما می‌توانیم افزایش قیمت را بعد از هاوینگ‌های بعدی، مشاهده کنیم.

دو

برخی دیگر استدلال می کنند که با توجه به قابل پیش‌بینی بودن این برنامه و آگاهی همه از آن، تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین پیش از اتفاق افتادن آن رخ می‌دهد. این تئوری می‌گوید که، معامله‌گران مدتهاست که می‌دانند پاداش بلوک بیت کوین کاهش خواهد یافت. این آگاهی به آنها زمان کافی را برای آماده‌سازی ‌می‌دهد. در نتیجه در نتیجه افراد بیت کوین می‌خرند و با افزایش تقاضا، و از طرفی دیگر حرکت گاوی قیمت بیت کوین قبل از هاوینگ بالا می‌رود.

سه

برخی دیگر کمی پیچیده‌تر فکر می‌کنند. آن‌ها می‌گویند که با آگاهی افراد از این اتفاق قابل پیش‌بنی، تقاضا برای بیت کوین بالا می‌رود و سرمایه‌گذران زمان کافی برای آماده‌سازی خواهند داشت. در نتیجه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین (بخاطر این قابل پیش‌بینی بودن) قبل از رخ دادن اتقاف میافتد. برخی از این پدیده با نام پیشخور شدن یاد می‌کند.
حال این افراد می‌گویند که اگر قرار بود هاوینگ بر قیمت تاثیر داشته باشد، باید تا الان تاثیر خود را می‌گذاشت. در حالی که چنین تاثیری مشاهده نشده است. بنابراین اگر تا کنون تاثیری نداشته است، پس از این به بعد، و با رخ دادن آن در ۲۳ اردیبهشت هم اتفاقی نخواهد افتاد.
۰. اگر وقت ندارید این داستان را بخوانید …

۱

پول، دقیقا مثل همه‌ی کالاهای دیگر است. ارزش یک پول به مقدار عرضه آن، مقداری که از آن وجود دارد و میزان تقاضایش بستگی دارد. دولت‌ها هر زمانی که بخواهند می‌توانند پول چاپ کنند. معمولا بانک‌های مرکزی هر چند ماه یک بار جمع می‌شوند تا تصمیم بگیرند که عرضه پول را، با چاپ آن دوباره تنظیم بکنند یا نه. اما اگه شرایط اضطراری پیش آید، این تصمیم خیلی سریع‌تر گرفته می‌شود. درست مثل همان چیزی که با آمدن کرونا شاهدش بودیم. اما بیت کوین هیچ بانکی مرکزی‌ای یا هیئت مدیری‌ای یا جایی که بتواند کنترلش کند ندارد. پس چگونه بیت کوین تصمیم می‌گیرد که چه قدر بیت کوین چاپ کند؟ در طول فرایندی به اسم هاوینگ!

۲

در سال ۲۰۰۸ ساتوشی ناکاموتو خالق بیت کوین ایده‌ای در سر داشت. چه می‌شد اگر آدم‌ها را به طور کامل از شر دخالت دولت‌ها و مراکز بر روی پول خلاص می‌کردیم و مطابق با یک برنامه مشخص که بیشتر از ۱۰۰ سال طول میکشید پول خاصی را خلق می‌کردیم که توسط خود انسان‌ها کنترل می‌شد؟ این پول احتمالا خسته کننده، قابل پیش بینی و قابل اعتماد می‌بود. چرا که افراد می‌توانستند بر اساس آن برنامه‌ریزی‌های بلندمدتشان را با اعتماد و بدون نگرانی درباره اتفاق‌های ناگهانی یا غیرقابل پیش بینی انجام دهند. اما برای آکه بیت کوین ارزشمند بماند، باید نایاب باشد، دقیقا مثل طلا. ناکاموتو حداکثر تعداد بیت کوین‌ها ممکن رو ۲۱ میلیون تعیین کرد. بنابراین عرضه بیت کوین محدود است و به لطف هاوینگ نرخ عرضه غیرقابل تغییر و قابل پیش‌بینی دارد. اما هاوینگ چگونه کار میکند؟

۳

بیایید اول فرایند استخراج را مرور کنیم. اینگونه فکر کنید که استخراج یه قرعه کشی است که هر ۱۰ دقیقه یک برنده دارد. و ماینرها برای وارد شدن به این قرعه کشی، یک مساله ریاضی را حل میکنند و یک بلیت قرعه کشی به دست میاورند. در اوایل، کامپیوترها برای ایجاد این بلیت‌ها طراحی نشده بودند. بنابراین هر ماینر تعداد بلیت زیادی را نمیتونست برای هر قرعه کشی ایجاد کند. در نیتجه هر کسی می‌توانست با کامپیوترش بلیت به دست آورد و برای شرکت در این قرعه کشی و برنده شدن شانس داشته باشه. در واقع مثلا اگر شما ۳ بلیت به دست میاوردید، برای برنده شدن در قرعه کشی ۳ شانس داشتید. اما الان تو سال ۲۰۲۰ ماشین‌های خاصی برای استخراج وجود دارند و شرکت‌ها انبارهای بزرگی را با این ماشین‌ها پر میکنند. این انبارها در جاهایی از جهان هستند که برق ارزان هستند.

۴

هر ۱۰ دقیقه یک ماینر خوش شانس در این قرعه کشی برنده میشود. و به عنوان پاداش به او بیت کوین داده میشود. در سالاهای اول زمانی که بیت کوین ارزشی نداشت این پاداش ۵۰ بیت کوین در هر ۱۰ دقیقه بود. که به پول الان چیزی حدود ۲۵۰ هزار دلار می‌شد! اما در آن زمان ارزشش حتی کمتر از ۵۰ سنت بوده است! با گذشت زمان و با رخ دادن هاوینگ در هر چهار سال، مقدار این پاداش هم کم شده است. در اولین هاوینگ در سال ۲۰۱۲ پاداش از ۵۰ به ۲۵ رسید و قیمت از ۲ دلار به ۲۷۰ دلار افزایش یافت. در سال ۲۰۱۶ قیمت به ۷۰۰ دلار رسید و تا حباب های سال ۲۰۱۷ و ۲۰۱۸ به رشدش ادامه داد. تو هاونیگ بعدی پاداش به ۶.۲۵ می‌رسد اما معلوم نیست اتفاقی مشابه برای قیمت بیافتد یا نه. هاونیگ تعداد ییت کوین‌هایی که می‌توان در قرعه کشی برنده شد را کاهش می‌دهد. اما همزمان تعداد بلیت‌هایی که در هر قرعه کشی می‌تواند شرکت کند هم بیشتر و بیشتره شده است. شرکت تو این قرعه کشی برای ماینر‌ها از نظر مالی صرفه دارد. چرا که در کنار کاهش پاداش‌ها، ارزش بیت کوین هم بالا رفته است.

۵

بنابراین هاوینگ یک فرایند کند، بلند مدت و قابل پیش بینی برای کاهش نرخ تعداد بیت کوین های جدیدی است که به وجود می‌آیند. این فرایند تا جایی که دیگه استخارج بیت کوین‌های جدید هیج معنایی نداشته باشه ادامه دارد. در طول سال‌ها رقابت بین ماینرها بیشتر و بیشتر شده. و حتی ماینرهایی که به دنبال درامد روزانه هستند هم جذب شده‌اند. همه‌ی این‌ها امنیت شبکه بیت کوین رو بیشتر میکند. هیچ کس نمی‌تواند بگوید که تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت چه خواهد بود و قیمت بعد از هاوینگ بعدی چه قدر بالا می‌رود. برخی انتظار اتفاق‌های بزرگی را دارند. شاید ۶ رقمی شدن بیت کوین! در حالی که دیگران فکر می‌کنند که چون این بار همه از هاونیگ خبر دارند، پس تاثیرش از قبل بر روی قیمت آمده است.

۶

یکی از سوال‌هایی که باقی می‌ماند این است که آیا با کم شدن پاداش‌ها، همچنان استخراج برای ماینرها جذاب می‌ماند؟ یادتان باشد که اگه ماینرها سود نکنند، دیگر استخراج نخواهند کرد. به هر حال آن‌ها محض رضای خدا هزینه‌ای برای برق و ماشین‌ها پرداخت نمی‌کنند. پس اگه قیمت بیت کوین بالا نرود، احتمالا ماینرها هزینه انتقال بیشتری را از کاربران طلب خواهند کرد. که باعث میشود سیستم بیت کوین برای انتقال ارزش گران و پرهزینه باشد.
هاونیگ به طور منظم مثل یک ساعت اتفاق می‌افتد و فارغ از نتیجه نهایی، مکانیزمی جذاب برای جلو بردن سیستم بیت کوین و به طور قطع از خلاقانه‌ترین تجربه‌ها در جهان بلاک چین است.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

مفصل‌تر بخوانید …

۱. مقدمه

شاید در نگاه اول،فکر کنید هاوینگ، اسم یک فیلم ترسناک درباره قتل‌های زنجیره‌ای باشد. در حالی که هاوینگ، نام یکی از جذاب‌ترین اتفاقات در طول تاریخ بیت کوین است. «هاوینگ» معادل لغت «Halving» است. Halving در انگلیسی به معنای نصف شدن است. برای مثال جمله‌ی «the halving of oil price» به معنای نصف شدن قیمت نفت است. خیلی خلاصه منظور از هاوینگ بیت کوین، نصف شدن پاداش هر بلاک است.
در ماه می (حدود ۲۳ اردیبهشت)، تعداد بیت‌کوین‌هایی (BTC) که در هر ۱۰ دقیقه وارد گردش می‌شوند (همان پاداش بلاک) به نصف کاهش می‌یابد و از ۱۲.۵ بیت‌کنوین به ۶.۲۵ بیت‌کوین می‌رسد. این اتفاق به راحتی قابل دیدن و پیش‌بنی است. چرا که هر چهار سال یک بار اتفاق می‌افتد و قبلا هم دو بار اتفاق افتاده است.
طمع رسیدن به ثروت، چیزی است که توجه‌ها را به این اتفاق جلب می‌کند. مقدار بیت‌کوین‌هایی که به سیستم تزریق می‌شود، به ناگهان کاهش پیدا می‌کند. در حالی که بر روی کاغد، تقاضا ثابت خواهد ماند. در نتیجه این اتفاق (و با توجه به نمودار عرضه و تقاضا در اقتصاد) احتمالا قیمت بیت کوین بالا خواهد رفت. به این ترتیب، این رویداد بحث‌های زیادی را درباره پیش بینی قیمت بیت کوین و نحوه پاسخگویی بازار به آن راه انداخته است.
📷نمودار تقاضا و عرضه بیت کوین‌های جدید وارد شده به سیستم (در هر ده دقیقه) پس از رخ دادن هالوینگ
چند نکته: ۱. این نمودار نمودار اصلی عرضه و تقاضای بیت کوین نیست. چرا که حتی با کاهش نرخ تعداد بیت‌کوین‌هایی که به سیستم وارد می‌شود، باز هم میزان عرضه بیت‌کوین افزایش خواهد یافت. عرضه در این نمودار، مربوط به بیت‌کوین‌های جدید است. ۲. معلوم نیست که چه اتفاقی برای تقاضا خواهد افتاد. اما اگر فرض کنیم تقاضا ثابت است، بر روی کاغذ قیمت این بیت‌کوین‌های جدید باید بالا رود. ۳. با بالا رفتن قیمت بیت‌کوین‌های جدید، قیمت کل بیت‌کوین‌های در بازار نیز تحت تاثیر قرار می‌گیرد.
مایکل دوبروسکی (Michael Dubrovsky)، بنیانگذار بخش تحقیق و توسعه در PoWx می‌گوید:
زمانی که استخراج‌کنندگان، بیت‌کوین‌های کمتری برای فروش داشته باشند، در نتیجه بیت‌کوین‌های کمتری برای خرید در دسترس خواهد بود.
اما کاهش دوره‌ای نرخ استخراج بیت کوین، نسبت به هرگونه حرکت کوتاه مدت دیگری ذر قیمت می‌تواند برای عملکرد بیت کوین اهمیت داشته باشد. پاداش بلوک یکی از مولفه های مهم بیت کوین است. چیزی که امنیت سیستم بیت کوین را تضمین می‌کند. با توجه به اینکه در دهه‌های آینده، این پاداش‌ها به صفر می‌رسند، می‌توانند انگیزه‌های اقتصادی برای استخراج بیت کوین را از بین ببرند. چیزی که در نهایت امنیت شبکه بیت کوین را تحیت تاثیر قرار می‌دهد.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۲. هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست ؟

بیت کوین‌های جدیدی که به عنوان پاداش بلاک، به چرخه بیت‌کوین‌ها وارد می‌شوند، توسط استخراج کنندگان یا ماینرها تولید می‌شود. این استخراج کنندگان از تجهیزات الکترونیکی گران‌قیمتی برای به دست آوردن یا استخراج استفاده می‌کنند. در هر ۲۱۰،۰۰۰ بلاک، یا تقریبا در هر چهار سال، تعداد کل بیت کوین که استخراج کنندگان به طور بالقوه می‌توانند برنده شوند، نصف می‌شود.
📷عرضه بیت کوین و پاداش های بلاکی
در سال ۲۰۰۹، این سیستم با ۵۰ سکه بیت کوین برای پاداش هر بلاک در هر ۱۰ دقیقه شروع به کار کرد. در حال حاضر با گذشت ۲ هاوینگ، این پاداش به ۱۲.۵ بیت کوین رسیده است. این فرایند درزمانی که کل ۲۱ میلیون بیت کوین (احتمالا در سال ۲۱۴۰) استحراج شود به پایان خواهد رسید.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۳. چه کسی زمان‌بندی توزیع بیت کوین را تعیین کرده است؟ چرا؟

ساتوشی ناکاموتو (Satoshi Nakamoto)! خالق بیت کوین، که البته شاید تنها یک نام مستعار از یک فرد یا یک گروه باشد. او تقریبا یک سال پس از انتشار این نرم افزار به جهان ناپدید شد. بنابراین او، یا آنها (ما از این بعد با «آن‌ها» به او اشاره می‌کنیم) دیگر نیستند تا توضیح دهند که چرا این فرمول خاص را برای افزودن بیت کوین‌های جدید به سیستم انتخاب کردند. (و چرا اصلا تعداد آن‌ها را به ۲۱ میلیون محدود کرده‌اند، چرا مثال عدد ۱۰۰ میلیون را انتخاب نکردند؟!)
اما ایمیل‌های الکترونیکی اولیه که توسط ناکاموتو نوشته است، تا حدی این موضوع را روشن می‌کند. اندکی پس از انتشار مقاله بیت کوین، ناکاموتو به طور خلاصه درباره روش‌های مختلفی که سیاست پولی منتخب آنها (برنامه‌ی زمانی که استخراج کنندگان مطابق با آن پاداش خود را دریافت می‌کنند) عمل خواهد کرد و در مورد شرایطی که این امر می‌تواند منجر به رکود (زمانی که قدرت خرید ارز افزایش پیدا می‌کند) یا تورم (زمانی که قیمت کالاها یا خدماتی که می‌توان با یک ارز خرید کرد افزایش پیدا می‌کند) شود توضیح داد.
در آن زمان، ناکاموتو نمی‌توانست حدس بزند که چند نفر از این پول آنلاین جدید استفاده خواهد کرد. آنها درباره اینکه چرا این فرمول خاص را انتخاب کردند، خیلی کم توضیح دادند: «سکه‌ها به هر حال باید از ابتدا توزیع شوند و به نظر می رسد یک نرخ ثابت بهترین فرمول است.» جمله اصلی ناکاموتو به شکل زیر است.
«Coins have to get initially distributed somehow, and a constant rate seems like the best formula.»
در اکثر ارزهای منتشر شده، یک بانک مرکزی دارای ابزارهایی است که به آن امکان افزودن یا حذف آن ارز از سیستم را می دهد. مثلا بانک مرکزی آمریکا، می‌تواند دلار چاپ کند یا دلارها را از بازار جمع کند. به عنوان مثال اگر اقتصاد در وضع بدی باشد، دولت می‌تواند گردش مالی را افزایش داده و با خرید اوراق بهادار از بانک‌ها به افراد وام‌ دهد. از طرف دیگر، اگر دولت بخواهد دلارها را از اقتصاد خارج کند، می تواند اوراق بهادار را خود را به افراد بفروشد.
در آن زمان، ناکاموتو نمی‌توانست حدس بزند که چند نفر از این پول آنلاین جدید استفاده خواهد کرد. (حتی نمی‌دانست که اصلا کسی استفاده خواهد کرد یا نه)
At the time, Nakamoto couldn’t have known how many people would use the new online money (if anyone).
چه خوب باشد چه بد، بیت کوین کمی با بقیه فرق دارد. مقدار عرضه‌ی این ارز و زمان آن دقیقا مطابق با یک برنامه زمان‌بندی مشخص تعیین شده. و این برنامه غیر قابل تغییر است.
بر خلاف سیاست پولی ارزهای صادر شده دولتی، که از طریق فرآیندهای سیاسی و نهادهای انسانی وضع می‌شود، سیاست پولی بیت کوین توسط کدی که در شبکه پخش می‌شود، تعیین می‌شود. اگر این کد بخواهد تغییر کند، نیاز به یک هماهنگی و توافق جمعی در بین کل جامعه و شبکه بیت کوین است.
بلاکچین دات کام (Blockchain.com) در یکی از مطالب خود که در وبلاگش پیش از هاوینگ سال ۲۰۱۶ منتشر شد می‌گوید: «بر خلاف اکثر ارزهای ملی که می‌شناسیم، مانند دلار یا یورو، بیت کوین با یک عرضه ثابت و برنامه زمان‌بندی قابل پیش‌بینی طراحی شده است. فقط ۲۱ میلیون بیت کوین وجود خواهد داشت. این تعداد از پیش تعیین شده باعث محدود شدن آن می‌شود. این محدودیت و کمیابی بیت کوین (مانند طلا) در کنار کاربرد آن است که باعث حفظ ارزش آن در بازار می‌شود.»
یکی دیگر از جنبه های منحصر به فرد بیت کوین، برنامه ناکاموتو برای پاداش بلاک‌ها است. پاداش بلاک‌ها در طول زمان کاهش پیدا می‌کند. این موضوع یکی دیگر از تفاوت‌های بیت کوین با سیستم های مالی مدرن است. سیستم‌هایی که در آن بانک های مرکزی عرضه پول را کنترل می‌کنند. برخلاف بیت کوین، عرضه دلار از سال ۲۰۰۰ تا کنون حدودا سه برابر شده است.

ناکاموتو سرنخ‌هایی را از این که بیت کوین را به دلایل سیاسی به وجود آورده جای گذاشته است.

اولین بلاک بلاکچین بیتکوین Genesis block است. این بلاک که ده ساله شده در ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ توسط ساتوشی استخراج شد. نکته جالب پیام مخفی­ است که ساتوشی در آن قرار داده. یکی از پارامتر‌هایی که در هر بلاکی ذخیره می‌شود کوین­ بیس (Coinbase) نام دارد. کوی­ن‌بیس پارامتری است که میزان پاداش ماینرها به ازای ساخت یک بلاک را معین می‌کند. اما در اولین بلاک یا همان بلاک جنسیس، می­‌توان هر متغییری را در آن جای داد. نکته جالب این است که ناکاموتو رشته­ ی (string) زیر را در این بلاک جای داده است:
{۰۴FFFF001D0104455468652054696D65732030332F4A616E2F323030 39204368616E63656C6C6F72206F6E206272696E6B206F66207365636 F6E64206261696C6F757420666F722062616E6B73}
پس از رمزگشایی این رشته متن زیر به دست می‌آید.
{The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks}.
که معنای آن این است: «روزنامه The Times در تاریخ ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ رئیس خزانه‌داری [انگلستان] در آستانه‌ی اهدای کمک مالی به بانک‌ها است.». این پیام بی‌ثباتی­‌های اقتصادی که بخاطر استفاده­‌ی گسترده از سیستم بانکداری ذخیره کسری به وجود آمده است را سرزنش می‌کند. در سیستم ذخیره کسری، بانک می‌تواند پول افراد را به افراد یا شرکت­‌های دیگر وام دهد. در واقع، می‌تواند پول تولید کند!
بسیاری این پیام را به عنوان نشانه‌ای از عقاید و اهداف سیاسی ناکاموتو تفسیر می‌کنند. بیت کوین در صورت پذیرفته شدن توسط جوامع، می‌تواند قدرت پولی را که بانک‌ها و دولت‌ها بر سیاست‌های پولی دارند را کاهش دهد. هیچ نهاد مرکزی نمی‌تواند بیت کوین را خارج از برنامه دقیق آن ایجاد کند.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۴. تأثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین چگونه است؟

بسیاری از افراد فکر می‌کنندکه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین مثبت است. تا جایی که آن را تا حد بسیار زیادی افزایش می‌دهد. برای همین موضوع نیز توجه خیلی‌ها به هاوینگ جلب شده است. اما حقیقت این است که، هیچ کس نمی‌داند چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد. بیت کوین تاکنون دو بار هاوینگ را تجربه کرده است.
📷جدول زمان‌بندی هاوینگ‌های بیت کوین
هاوینگ سال ۲۰۱۲ برای اولین بار نشان داد که بازار چگونه به آن واکنش نشان خواهد داد. تا آن زمان، جامعه بیت کوین خیلی دقیق نمی‌دانست (یا همه‌ی آن‌ها نمی‌دانستند) که چگونه یک کاهش ناگهانی در پاداش می‌تواند روی شبکه تاثیر بگذارد. تنها اندکی پس از هاوینگ بود که دیدند با هاوینگ قیمت شروع به افزایش کرد.
دومین هاوینگ که در سال ۲۰۱۶ رخ داد، کاملا پیش‌بینی شده بود. درست مانند همین هاونیگی که در پیش است. مثال الان که برخی از سایت‌ها مانند coindesk.com یک روز شمار برای آن قرار دادند، در آن زمان نیز این روز شمار وجود داشت. همه به دنبال آن بودند تا ببیند هاوینگ چه تاثیری بر قیمت خواهد داشت.
در تاریخ ۱۶ ژوئیه ۲۰۱۶، روزی که هاونیگ دوم رخ داد، قیمت ۱۰ درصد کاهش یافت و به ۶۱۰ دلار رسید، اما سپس به همان جایی که قبلا بود بازگشت. شواهد اندکی وجود داشت که نشان می‌داد کاهش ناگهانی نرخ استخراج بیت کوین تاثیر طولانی مدتی بر قیمت داشته باشد. در آن زمان، جیکوب دونلیلی تا آنجا پیش رفت که این رویداد را «عذاب کسالت آور» خواند.

.

در حالی که تاثیر فوری بر قیمت بیت کوین اندک بود، بازار به تدریج نسبت به هاوینگ واکنش نشان داد و قیمیتش افزایش پیدا کرد. برخی معتقدند که این افزایش قیمت نتیجه با تاخیری از هاوینگ بوده است. این تئوری به این شکل است که زمانی که عرضه بیت کوین کاهش می‌یابد، تقاضا برای آن ثابت باقی می‌ماند و قیمت را بالا می‌برد. اگر این نظریه صحیح باشد، ما می‌توانیم افزایش قیمت‌های مشابه را بعد از هاوینگ‌های بعدی، از جمله هاوینگ امسال مشاهده کنیم.
برخی دیگر استدلال می کنند که با توجه به قابل پیش‌بینی بودن این برنامه و آگاهی همه از آن، این تغییر در نرخ استخراج پیش از آنکه اتفاق بیافتد بر قیمت تاثیر خواهد داشت. آن‌ها تنها معتقند که این تاثیر از قبل گذاشته می‌شود. این تئوری می‌گوید که، معامله‌گران مدتهاست که می‌دانند پاداش بلوک بیت کوین کاهش خواهد یافت. این آگاهی به آنها زمان کافی را برای آماده‌سازی ‌می‌دهد. در نتیجه در نتیجه افراد بیت کوین می‌خرند و با افزایش تقاضا، و از طرفی دیگر حرکت گاوی قیمت بیت کوین قبل از هاوینگ بالا می‌رود.
برخی دیگر کمی پیچیده‌تر فکر می‌کنند. آن‌ها می‌گویند که با آگاهی افراد از این اتفاق قابل پیش‌بنی، تقاضا برای بیت کوین بالا می‌رود و سرمایه‌گذران زمان کافی برای آماده‌سازی خواهند داشت. در نتیجه تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین (بخاطر این قابل پیش‌بینی بودن) قبل از رخ دادن اتقاف میافتد. برخی از این پدیده با نام پیشخور شدن یاد می‌کند.
حال این افراد می‌گویند که اگر قرار بود هاوینگ بر قیمت تاثیر داشته باشد، باید تا الان تاثیر خود را می‌گذاشت. در حالی که چنین تاثیری مشاهده نشده است. بنابراین اگر تا کنون تاثیری نداشته است، پس از این به بعد، و با رخ دادن آن در ۲۳ اردیبهشت هم اتفاقی نخواهد افتاد.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۵. چرا استخراج کنندگان پاداش دریافت می‌کنند؟

دلیل آن این است که، بدون این پپاداش بلاک‌ها، بیت کوین اصلا کار نمی‌کند.
هسو (Hasu) به عنوان یک محقق مستقل می‌گوید که بیت‌کوین، تنها در صورتی می‌تواند به فعالیت خود ادامه دهد که بلاکچین آن بتواند پاسخ به دو سوال را بدهد. چه کسی مالک چه چیزی است، و در چه زمانی مالک آن چیز است. بخش اول، «چه کسی مالک چه چیزی است؟» با رمزنگاری حل می‌شود. فقط صاحب یک کلید خصوصی می‌تواند بیت کوین را خرج کند.
هسو توضیح می‌دهد: «بخش دوم، یعنی چه زمانی صاحب آن چیز است، چالش بزرگی است. اگر به این سوال پاسخ داده نشود، مردم می‌توانند بیت کوین‌های خود را دو بار خرج (double-spend) کنند.
بدون پاداش بلاک، شبکه در هرج و مرج خواهد بود. هسو توضیح می‌دهد که استخراج‌کنندگان، در صورت داشتن قدرت محاسباتی کافی، خودشان می‌توانند به دو طریق به شبکه حمله کنند! اول با دوبار خرج کردن بیت ‌کوین‌ها و دوم با متوقف کردن معاملات و جلوگیری ار انجام شدن آن‌ها. اما باید گفت که آن‌ها هیچ کدام از این کارها را نمی‌کنند. چرا که در این صورت پاداش بلاک را از دست خواهند داد.
به عبارت دیگر ، در صورت عدم پیروی از قوانین ، استخراج کنندگان پول از دست می‌دهند
هرچه قدرت پردازشگرهای محاسباتی بیشتری به سمت بیت کوین هدایت شود، حمله به آن سخت تر می‌شود. چرا که یک مهاجم برای اجرای حمله بخ شبکه، نیاز به بخش قابل توجهی از این قدرت پردازشی، معروف به hashrate دارد. هرچه استخراج کنندگان از طریق پاداش‌های بلوکی بتوانند درآمد بیشتری کسب کنند، قدرت استخراج بیشتری به سمت بیت کوین می‌آید و به این ترتیب از شبکه محافظت می‌شود.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۶. چه اتفاقی می‌افتد اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کم شود؟

دقیقا به همین خاطر است که کاهش دوره‌ای پاداش‌ها به یک نگرانی و مساله تبدیل می‌شود. اگر پاداش بلاک‌ها کاهش یابد، امنیت شبکه چگونه تامین خواهد شد؟!
استخارج کنندگان برای ادامه دادن به استخراج (یا در واقع تایید یا رد تراکنش‌های شبکه) باید انگیزه یا محرک داشته باشند. آنها باید حقوق بگیرند 🙂 . هیچ استخراج کننده‌ای محض رضای خدا رایانه‌های گرانقیمت و هزینه برق و انرژی خود را صرف این کار نمی‌کند. این در حالی است که بالاخره در نهایت این پاداش به صفر می‌رسد (در سال ۲۱۴۰). ولی باید گفت که علاوه بر پاداش بلاک‌ها، استخراج کنندگان از محل هزینه تراکنش (Transaction fees) نیز درآمد دارند. انتظار می‌رود با سقوط پاداش بلاک‌ها، هزینه‌های انتقال به منبع مهمی از پاداش استخراج کنندگان تبدیل شود.
ناکاموتو می‌نویسد: «در طی چند دهه وقتی که پاداش بلاک‌ها خیلی کم شود، هزینه تراکنش تبدیل به منبع صلی درآمد برای نودهای شبکه (یا استخراج کنندگان)‌ می‌شود. من مطمئن هستم که در طی ۲۰ سال، حجم معاملات یا خیلی خیلی زیاد باشد، یا اصلا معامله‌ای در کار نباشد!»
اما مدت طولانی است که محققان بیت کوین در حال بررسی این موضوع هستند که آیا هزینه تراکنش برای انگیزه دادن برای استخراج کنندگان کافی هست یا نه. یک دیدگاه آت است که هزینه تراکنش‌ها باید در طول زمان افزایش یابد تا بتوان امنیت شبکه را تضمین کرد.
پیش بینی اینکه چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد غیرممکن است، اما اگر سیستمی می‌خواهیم که بتواند ۱۰۰ سال عمر کند، باید برای بدترین حالت آماده باشیم.
دوبروسکی (Dubrovsky) می‌گوید: «حل این مشکل بدون استفاده از هزینه‌های تراکنش بسیار بالا ممکن نست. چرا که شبکه بیت کوین نمی‌تواند تعداد تراکنش‌های زیادی را در زمان انجام دهد، بنابراین باید از محل همان تراکنش‌های کم، هزینه تراکنش بالای را دریفات کند.»
همانطور که در بالا گفته شد، این پاداش‌های استخراج است که قدرت محاسبات بیشتری را به بیت کوین می‌کشاند، و آن را در برابر حمله‌هایی که سعی دارند قوانین شبکه را زیر پا بگذارند حفظ کند. در واقع، علت آنکه استخراج کنندگان استخراج می‌کنند، به دست آوردن پاداش شبکه است، نه هزینه تراکنش‌ها. محل اصلی درآمد پاداش اتس. معلوم نیست که آیا پاداش‌های کم در آینده حتی در صورت وجود هزینه‌های شبکه، برای استخراج کندگان کافی باشد یا نه.
هسو می‌گوید: «من فکر نمی‌کنم که این هاوینگ امنیت شبکه بیت کوین را به میزان قابل توجهی کاهش دهد. اما در ۸ یا ۱۲ سال، این موضوع واقعا مهم خواهد شد.»
بخشی از مشکل این است که با وجود گذشت بیش از یک دهه از تولد بیت کوین، هنوز هم بازار در حال محاسبه هزینه‌ی واقعی محافظت محافظت از شبکه در برابر مهاجمان است.
دوبروسکی (Dubrovsky) بحث می‌کند که: «هیچ کسی نمی‌داند که برای امن نگه داشتن شبکه بیت‌کوین، چه سطح از امنیت توسط استخارج کنندگان نیاز است. در حال حاضر، بیت کوین چیزی در حدود ۵ میلیارد دلار گردش مالی دارد و تا کنون هیچ حمله موفقی صورت نگرفته است. با این حال، هیچ پیش‌بینی از ارزش و قیمت این امنیت وجود ندارد. ممکن است بیت کوین بیش از حد امنیت دارد و بیش از حد به استخارج کنندگان پرداخت می‌کند. برای پیدا کردن حداقل امنیت مورد نیاز برای جلوگیری از حملات، باید پاداش‌های استخراج کنندگان را تا جای که حملات موفقی صورت گیرد کاهش داد. حال هیچ کسی نمی‌داند که با کاهش پاداش بلاک‌ها، و از بین رفتن انگیزه و محرک استخارج کنندگان، چه بلایی به سر امنیت شبکه خواهد آمد»
او ادامه می‌دهد: «مطمئنا این موضوع برای بیت کوین فاجعه‌بار خواهد بود، اما اگر پاداش کاهش یابد و جامعه بیت کوین کاری برای آن نکند، واقعا رخ دادن چنین سناریویی محتمل است.»
هسو می‌گوید که «امیدوار است» که هزینه تراکنش‌ها به اندازه‌ای کافی باشد که امنیت شبکه در آخر حفظ شود.
هسو می‌گوید: «انگیزه حمله به شبکه بیت کوین، نسبت به ۵ سال پیش بیشتر است. در حال حاضر [رئیس جمهور ایالات متحده] ترامپ، [رئیس جمهور شی جینپینگ] و دیگر رهبران جهان از بیت کوین انتقاد می‌کنند. هرچه بیت کوین بیشتر رشد کند، بیشتر ممکن است که مورد حمله قرار گیرد.»
این موضوع البته در حال حاضر شاید خیلی مهم نباشد، اما چند سال دیگر واقعا مهم خواهد شد. هسو گفت: «پیش بینی اینکه چه اتفاقی خواهد افتاد غیرممکن است، اما اگر ما سیستمی را می‌خواهیم که ۱۰۰ سال عمر کند، باید برای بدترین حالت آماده باشیم.
هاوینگ بیت کوین چیست | زمان هاوینگ بیت کوین | تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت بیت کوین

۷. جمع‌بندی

هاوینگ، یک فرایند بلندمدت، خسته‌کننده و قابل‌پیش‌بینی، برای حفظ ارزش بیت کوین در طول زمان، و کنترل تورم حاصل از عرضه بیت کوین‌های جدید است. هاوینگ این کار را با کند کردن نرخ توزیع در طول زمان انجام می‌دهد. تاثیر هاوینگ بر قیمت، در دوبار قبلی مثبت بوده است. اما اینکه آیا این بار نیز تاثیر مثبتی خواهد داشت، جای سوال دارد.
منابع: ۱. چرا هاوینگ احتمال دارد تاثیری بر قیمت نداشته باشد؟ ۲. هاوینگ چیست؟
submitted by Rabexio to u/Rabexio [link] [comments]

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بیت کوین چیست ؟
https://preview.redd.it/xgbzhdf1trt41.png?width=2141&format=png&auto=webp&s=466afdf830a0d51cb41acd11383185cd242cb3c6
بخرید و برای همیشه نگهش دارید
خرید بیت کوین | فروش بیت کوین
فلسفه وجودی این رمزارز برای اولین بار توسط شخصی به نام ساتوشی ناکاموتو (Satoshi Nakomoto) در مقاله­ای به نام «بیت­کوین: یک سیستم پول الکترونیک همتا به همتا» که در ۳۱ اکتبر ۲۰۰۸ در یک کریپتوگرافی میلینگ لیست (cryptographic mailing list) منتشر شد، شرح داده شده است. کریپتوگرافی روش محافظت از اطلاعات و ارتباطات از طریق استفاده از کدهای امن است، بنابراین در آن زمان این مقاله تنها برای کسانی که در آن لیست ایمیل قرار داشتند قابل مشاهده بود. در این مقاله ساتوشی به توضیح پروتکلی با نام اثبات از طریق انجام کار می‌پردازد. این پروتکل مشکل دوبارخرچ کردن پول‌های دیجیتال را حل می‌کند. دوبارخرج کردن یا double-spending یکی از مشکلاتی است که در ذات پول‌های دیجیتال وجود دارد.
بلاک جنسیس
اولین بلاک بلاکچین بیتکوین Genesis block است. این بلاک که ده ساله شده در ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ توسط ساتوشی استخراج شد. نکته جالب پیام مخفی­ است که ساتوشی در آن قرار داده.یکی از پارامتر‌هایی که در هر بلاکی ذخیره می‌شود کوین­ بیس (Coinbase) نام دارد. اما این پارامتر هیچ ربطی به صرافی کوین­‌بیس ندارد. احتمالا این کوین‌­بیس است که نام خود را با الهام از آن انتخاب کرده! کوی­ن‌بیس پارامتری است که میزان پاداش ماینرها به ازای ساخت یک بلاک را معین می‌کند. اما در اولین بلاک یا همان بلاک جنسیس، می­‌توان هر متغییری را در آن جای داد. نکته جالب این است که ناکاموتو رشته­ ی (string) زیر را در این بلاک جای داده است:
۰۴FFFF001D0104455468652054696D65732030332F4A616E2F323030 39204368616E63656C6C6F72206F6E206272696E6B206F66207365636 F6E64206261696C6F757420666F722062616E6B73
پس از رمزگشایی این رشته با استفاده از روش اسکی (ASCII) متن زیر به دست آمد
. {The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks}.
که معنای آن این است: «روزنامه The Times در تاریخ ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ رئیس خزانه‌داری [انگلستان] در آستانه‌ی اهدای کمک مالی به بانک‌ها است.». این پیام مهری زمانی است برای بیتکوین. و ملامت و سرزنشی برای بی‌ثباتی­‌های اقتصادی که بخاطر استفاده­‌ی گسترده از سیستم بانکداری ذخیره کسری به وجود آمده. در سیستم ذخیره کسری، بانک می‌تواند پول افراد را به افراد یا شرکت­‌های دیگر وام دهد. در واقع، می‌تواند پول تولید کند!
استخراج بیت کوین و پاداش ماینرها
بیشترین مقدار عرضه­‌ی بیت­کوین ۲۱ میلیون BTC خواهد بود. در حال حاضر حدود ۱۸ میلیون بیت­‌کوین در گردش است. هر واحد بیتکوین می‌­تواند به مقدارهای کوچکتری تا ۸ رقم اعشار تقسیم شود. یک واحد از کوچکترین تقسیم ۰.۰۰۰۰۰۰۰۱ BTC است که ساتوشی (Satoshi) یا سات (sat) نام دارد.
نرم ­افزارهای استخراج (miners) و کیف پول بیتکوین متن ­باز و غیرمتمرکز هستند. به این معنی که شبکه آن­ها در اختیار هرکسی که کامپیوتر و اینترنت داشته باشد قرار می‌گیرد. تراکنش­‌های شبکه توسط ماینرهای اعتبارسنجی می‌شوند و در شبکه بلاکچین (blockchain) ثبت می­‌شوند. سختی الگوریتم اثبات انجام کار پس از هر ۲۰۱۶ بلاک دوباره تنظیم و تعدیل می­‌شود. این کار حدودا هر دو هفته یک بار انجام می‌شود. اینگونه زمان لازم برای تشکیل شدن یک بلاک به طور میانگین حدود ۱۰ دقیقه باقی می‌ماند.
رویدادهای مهم بیت کوین
۳۱ اکتبر ۲۰۰۸ | انتشار مقاله بیت­‌کوین توسط ساتوشی ناکاموتو ۳ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ | استخراج بلاک جنسیس توسط ساتوشی ناکاموتو ۱۲ ژانویه ۲۰۰۹ | ثبت اولین تراکنش با استفاده از بیت­‌کوین. فرستادن ۱۰۰ BTC توسط ساتوشی ناکاموتو برای هال فینی (Hal Finney) ۲۲ می ۲۰۱۰ | اولین تراکنش تجاری ثبت شده با استفاده از بیت­کوین. خرید دو عدد پیتزا به ازای ۱۰ هزار بیت­کوین ۱۴ ژانویه ۲۰۱۶ | انتشار مقاله سبک­ سازی شبکه (Lightning Network)، راه ­حلی برای بیت‌کوین در مقیاس های بیشتر ۱ آگوست ۲۰۱۷ | فورک سخت (hard fork) بیت­کوین کش (Bitcoin Cash) ۲۳ آگوست ۲۰۱۷ | به کارگیری شبکه سگویت (SegWit)
📷
بیت کوین در یک نگاه
بیشترین مقدار عرضه ۲۱,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
پروتکل توافقی مبتنی بر اثبات انجام کار (POW)
تاریخ عرضه ۲۰۰۸-۱۰-۳۱
نوع کوین (coin)
قیمت عرضه اولیه
منبع کد https://github.com/bitcoin/
وایت پیپر
English Whitepaper
وب سایت رسمی www.bitcoin.org
مزایا و ویژگی های قابل توجه بیت کوین
بیتکوین غیرمتمرکز است.
یکی از اهداف اولیه ساتوشی به هنگام خلق بیت‌کوین به وجود آوردن سیستمی مستقل از مدیریت افراد متخصص بود! آن گونه که هر فردی که در استخراج (ماینینگ) و مبادله‌ی آن نقشی داشت، بتواند سهمی در مدیریت آن سیستم داشته باشد. یا به عبارتی بخشی از شبکه باشد. اینگونه هم شده است، کنترل شبکه بیتکوین در اختیار هیچ بانک مرکزی نیست.هر رایانه‌ای که در استخراج یا تایید تراکنش‌ها درگیر باشد می‌تواند بخشی از شبکه باشد. هیچ دستگاه دولتی توان به کارگیری سیاست‌های پولی‌ را که ممکن است باعث ایجاد بحران مالی شود ندارد. هیچ کسی نمی‌تواند بیت‌کوین‌های افراد را ضبط کند. نکته دیگر آن است که اگر بخشی از شبکه با مشکل روبه‌رو شود، باقی شبکه به کار خود ادامه خواهد داد.
حریم خصوصی افراد در شبکه رعایت می‌شود.
امروزه بانک‌ها همه چیز را درباره‌ی مشتریانشان می‌دانند! از تاریخچه مالی آن‌ها گرفته تا اطلاعات شخصی‌. از شماره همراه تا آدرسشان. این موضوع اما برای بیتکوین متفاوت است. برای ساختن یک کیف‌پول نیازی به اطلاعاتی که شما را از بقیه متمایز کند نیست. در واقع به راحتی می‌توانید در این شبکه چند حساب کاربری داشته باشید بدون آنکه هیچ نام یا نشانی از شما وجود داشته باشد. این در حالی است که این ارز کاملا شفاف عمل می‌کند!
بیت‌کوین کاملا شفاف است
جزئیات هر تراکنش در شبکه و در دفتر کلی به نام بلاک چین (blockchain) ضبط می‌شود. این دفتر کل در اختیار همه‌ی افراد می‌تواند قرار گیرد. بنابراین اگر از یک آدرس عمومی استفاده کرده باشید، هر شخصی به راحتی می‌تواند با جزئیات آن را در بلاک چین مشاهده کند. می‌تواند بگوید چه مقدار بیت‌کوین در آن وجود دارد. نکته قابل توجه آن است که کسی نمی‌تواند بفهمد آن آدرس متعلق به شما است، مگر آنکه خودتان بگویید!
راه‌اندازی بیت‌کوین ساده است.
معمولا برای افتتاح حساب در بانک‌های معمولی فرایند بلندمدت و زمان‌بری باید انجام شود. این در حالی است که ساخت یک کیف پول تنها در چند ثانیه ممکن است. بدون هیچ کارمزد یا فرایندی برای راستی آزمایی اعتبارتان، می‌توانید یک حساب داشته باشید.
غیرقابل انکار بودن بیت‌کوین
اگر برای کسی بیتکوین فرستاید، انکار آن ناممکن خواهد بود. این ویژگی بخاطر برگشت‌ناپذیر بودن این ارز است، به آن معنی که اگر برای کسی بیتکوین فرستادید هیچ راهی برای بازگشتش وجود ندارد. مگر اینکه خود دریافت‌کننده آن را به شما برگرداند.
هزینه انتقال ناچیز و سرعت بالا شبکه بیتکوین
هزینه انتقال در شبکه بیتکوین نسبت به بانک‌ها ناچیز بوده است. علاوه بر این انتقال آن در هر زمانی به هر نقطه‌ای از جهان تنها در چند دقیقه ممکن است.
برخی از سوالات متداول درباره بیت کوین ؟
خرید بیت کوین در ایران با ریال چگونه ممکن است؟
خوشبختانه چند سالی است که امکان خرید ارزهای دیجیتال در ایران با استفاده از ریال فراهم شده است. در حال حاضر صرافی‌های دیجیتال مختلفی این خدمت را ارائه می‌کنند. رابکس نیز یکی از صرافی‌هایی است که برای مدت طولانی در این بازار فعالیت دارد. این صرافی با ارائه قیمت‌هایی مناسب و ایجاد رابطه‌ای بلند مدت با مشتریان معامله بیتکوین با استفاده از ریال را فراهم کرده است. شما می‌توانید بهترین قیمت بیت کوین را از رابکس بخوانید و در مدتی کوتاه خرید یا فروش خود را انجام دهید.
آیا خرید بیت کوین بدون احراز هویت ممکن است؟
خیر. خرید و فروش بیت کوین در حوزه ی سرویس های مالی و تکنولوژی ( Fintech ) است. بنابراین برای جلوگیری از سوء استفاده‌های احتمالی مثل پول‌شویی و استفاده از کارت های سرقت شده، هویت کاربران باید کاملا مشخص شود. خرید بیت کوین
به خاطر همین موضوع همه‌ی صرافی‌های دیجتال معتبری که در ایران فعالیت می‌کنند حتما کاربران خود را احراز هویت می‌کنند.
آیا جز بیتکوین رمزارز دیگری می توانم خرید کنم ؟
بله، بیتکوین معروف ترین ارز دیجیتال رایج در بازار است به طوریکه بیتکویین بیشترین سهم بازار را به خود اختصاص داده است ولی در صورت تمایل شما می توانید از بیش از ۲۰۰ رمزارزی که در رابکس لیست شده است به راحتی به خرید و فروش بپردازید.
چگونه با بیت کوین درآمد زایی کنم؟
در حال حاضر از دو راه می‌توان از بیتکوین درآمد زایی کرد. اولین آن ها ماینینگ یا استخراج این ارز توسط ماینرهاست. دومین روش معامله و ترید کردن آن در بازار است. بیتکوین تنها ارز دنیای ارزهای دیجیتال نیست. ازهای زیاد دیگری نیز وجود دارد. قیمت این ارزها نسبت به یکدیگر مدام در حال تغییر است. بنابراین می‌توان با خرید و فروش ارزها و تبدیل آن ها به یکدیگر ارزش پول خود را افزایش داد. فروش بیت کوین
علاوه بر این ارزش ارزهای دیجیتال بخصوص پیت کوین در طول زمان در حال افزایش است. بنابراین راه دیگر می‌تواند آن باشد که آن را بخرید و نگهش دارید تا در طول زمان ارزشمندتر شود.
اما پیشنهاد می‌شود پیش از هر اقدامی برای سرمایه‌گذاری، مطالعات خود را درباره ارزهای دیجیتال افزایش دهید. پیش از هر اقدامی مطمئن شوید که واقعا می‌دانید بیت کوین چیست . متاسفانه این ارز امروزه در کشور به یکی از جذاب‌ترین موضوعات تبدیل شده. افراد مختلفی بدون آنکه آگاهی زیادی داشته باشند اقدام به خرید یا فروش آن می‌کنند. این در حالی است که اگر از آن‌ها بپرسید بیت کوین چیست نمی‌توانند برایتان توضیح دهند. در نتیجه همین موضوع تعداد زیادی در این راه ضرر کرده‌اند.
بیت کوین چیست و بیتکویین چیست ؟!
نام درست bitcoin به فارسی « بیت کوین » است. کلمه « بیت کویین » برای اولین بار در یکی از برنامه های شبکه سه و توسط یکی از مهمانان برنامه آورده شد. بیت کویین بخاطر شباهت این کلمه با کلمه « queen » به معنای ملکه به سوژه شبکه های اجتماعی تبدیل شده است.
خرید و فروش بیتکوین سریع است ؟
با توجه به محبوبیت این رمزارز ( بیتکوین ) در دنیا و به خصوص در ایران، نقد شوندگی آن به راحتی امکان‌پذیر است. رابکس به شما این امکان را می‌دهد تا در کوتاه‌ترین زمان و به راحتی بیتکوین خود را بفروشید و یا خریداری فرمایید.
submitted by Rabexio to u/Rabexio [link] [comments]

Public CodeValley/Emergent Consensus questioning and investigation Thread. Ask your hard questions and dispel your doubts here.

What is going on here?
I am asking some hard questions for the CodeValley Company, which recently proposed a new revolutionary software development paradigm called Emergent Coding at the latest big Bitcoin Cash conference in Australia.
I am asking these questions because, as I (and ~150 people who agreed with me) noticed, there are stunning similarities between CodeValley and the companies who have tried and succeeded in crippling Peer-To-Peer Electronic Cash: nChain and Blockstream.
According to me, as it looks now, similarities between these 3 companies (nChain, Blockstream, CodeValley) are the following:
}- Sources of funding are extremely unclear or openly hostile to Bitcoin
}- At first and even second glance, there is no product, no way to make money
}- Whitepaper & Documentation is missing, hollow or total abstract bullshit, company has no logical sense of existence
}- Detailed specifications or proofs of operation are not available
}- Main products are closed-source patented blobs (BSV, Liquid, Emergent Coding)
}- They have huge influences in the industry or try to establish themselves in such position to have the infuences
I am here (and you are here, I assume) because we want to find out the truth, whatever the truth is. The point of this topic is to ask the hardest possible questions in order to estimate the probability of CodeValley company being legit.
But this is also a chance for CodeValley to clear their name by providing sufficient information that proves that (after 4 years of having working company and 10+ years of having patents [Archived]) they actually have a working product and are a legit company, and not an infiltrator designed and paid by banks/TPTB in order to cripple and destroy Bitcoin Cash. Also if they truly are what they claim and they truly have such a revolutionary technology, this is a great opportunity for promotion. To show the world that the tech actually works.
I will ask my questions and you can ask your questions as well. Don't make them easy. Don't have mercy (but these things work better when you are polite).
Let's begin the trial by fire!
Calling nlovisa
My Questions/Tasks for CodeValley:
[Of course you actually don't have to answer any of them or you can give us bullshit answers again, but in such case the community may conclude that you actually are next nChain/Blockstream and an enemy infiltrator, reject you and shoot down all your efforts. So the choice is yours]
@@@@ 1. Please upload your actual businessplan which you presented to the people in power who gave you funding(VCs? Government?) to create $50 Million BCH tech park. A businessplan which is supposed to explain spending of $50 million AUD should have at least 7 pages (but more probably 20+). Some names and unimportant details (but NOT money/financial numbers) can be redacted.
-- You have 6 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 2. Please list your current VCs and >%5 shareholders, with CEO names and HQ locations of each of them.
-- You have 4 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 3. Few days ago you promised to upload freely-accessible documentation to https://codevalley.com/docs subpage which would describe emergent coding in greater details.
@ - What happened to that promise?
@@@@ 4. After I accused that your company is bullshit and your product is hollow, you immediately started to praise me and offered me a trip to Australia [Archived].
@ - So, do you always praise and offer a paid trip across the world to Australia to all people on the Internet who heavily criticize you? Is this a common practice in your company?
@@@@ 5. A travel from Poland to Australia and back would cost something under $2000 AUD, counting buses, with hotels that would make something close to $2500 AUD even for few days. Based on this, I estimate your "invite random people from the internet to Australia in order to show them the product" budget has to consist of at least $50.000 AUD yearly (but $100.000 - $200.000 is more probable of course).
@ A) In your financial books, what exactly is called the Excel position of your budget expenses under which would your secretary put my trip's expenses?
@ B) How do you maintain such a large budget for such frivolous spending and how do you explain it to your shareholders/VCs?
@@@@ 6. Few days ago you answered somebody a question: "The trust model is also different. The bulk of the testing happens before the project is designed not after. Emergent Coding produces a binary with very high integrity and arguably far more testing is done in emergent coding than in incumbent methods you are used to.".
@ A) Who EXACTLY does the testing? People? Software? AI? Non-bullshit answer, please.
@ B) Why exactly is there "more testing" in Emergent Coding than in normal software creation paradigm? Why is emergent coding different? Do the developers who work in this paradigm are somehow special? Are the programming languages magical?
@ C) What are the specific software tools used for this "testing"? "Agents" is a non-answer, so don't even try.
@@@@ 7. Please provide a simple demo binary of a simple program created completely using your "Emergent Coding" and also provide all the binary sub-component files that make up the final binary.
Requirements: There has to be a minimum of 3 sub - binaries making up the final big binary for this to be valid. 2 or less does not count. None of the binaries can be obfuscated, they have to be clean X86/X86_64 machine code binaries.
Notes: It should be incredibily simple, quick and easy task for you, since designing such a complex and apparently breakthough system must have required thousands, tens of thousands if not hundereds of thousands tests. All of these tests produced working binaries - after all you wouldn't claim you have a working marvellous revolutionary product without extensive testing, right?
-- You have 18 hours for this task --
Of course, If you are saying the truth and have truly developed this revolutionary "emergent coding" binary-on-the-fly-merging technology, this should normally take you under 18 minutes to just find the test samples and upload them.
@@@@ 8. Please construct a simple (binary or source) single-use-compiler demo that will combine 3 or more sub-binaries into final working product. Please upload the sub-binaries and the "single-use compiler" to publicly available site so people in our community can verify that your product is actually working.
The single-use-compiler binary can be obfuscated with proper tool in order to hide your precious intellectual property. The 3 sample sub-binaries cannot be obfuscated. They have to be pure, clean, binary X86/X86_64 machine code. Everything has to be working and verifable of course.
-- You have 72 hours to complete this task --
I understand all your technologies are patented with patents that basically predate Bitcoin and you are giving us obfuscated binaries, so you don't have to worry about anybody stealing your company's intellectual property, right?
@@@@ 9. You mentioned the only application I need to create programs using Emergent Coding is the pilot app.
@ - What programming language(s) is the pilot app written in?
@@@@ 10. When you developed the Emerging Coding, before it started existing, you couldn't have used emergent coding to create the first (test & development) applications because it is a chicken and egg problem.
@ - What programming language did you use to create first client/serveapi/daemon/tool used to merge multiple binaries into one in Emergent Coding?
@@@@ 11. Please list all of your current programmers and programming language each of them is using next to their name. Also provide LinkedIn profiles if applicable.
-- You have 18 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 12. Please also list all Development Environments (IDEs) used by your current programmers next to their name.
-- You have 18 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 13. Please list all compilers used by your current programmers next to their name.
-- You have 18 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 14. So if I understand correctly CodeValley will be the company who runs $50 million BCH tech park and the tech will house multiple Bitcoin Cash-related startup and companies. Let's say I have a BCH startup and I would like to rent a loft/spot in your "tech park".
A) Please provide a PDF of sample basic contract you have (hopefully) prepared for such startups.
-- You have 4 hours to complete this task --
B) How much does the rent cost per a room (or m2/sqft) for a month and for a year?
@@@@ 15. Please submit the list of compilers that produce X86/X86_64/ARM binaries compatibile with Emergent Coding "mash-it-together" "binary compiler".
-- You have 4 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 16. Is it possible for Emergent Coding to merge multiple non-binary applications (like Python or PHP programs) together? Or is it just binaries?
Who are you?
I am a freedom thinker and individual independent from all infuences who just does what he finds appropriate at the moment. Disclaimer to preempt questions:
}- I do not work for anybody
}- I do not have any hidden agenda
}- I am only doing what I think is right
}- I am a born revolutionist, this is why I am in Bitcoin
Why are you doing this?
}- Because I believe in truth above all. Truth will save us.
}- Because I believe in Satoshi's peer-to-peer cash for the world vision and I will not stray from this path.
}- Because most people are apparently missing psychological immune system which is why attempts like Blockstream, nChain appear and are repetedly [at least partially] successful. I have an anti-bullshit immune system that works great against this type of attacks. I was actually one of the first to be banned in /Bitcoin sub for pointing out their lies with manipulations and to spot Craig Wright's attempt to infiltrate and bend /btc sub to his will..
}- Because I was fooled twice by entities similar to CodeValley before (namingly nChain and Blockstream) and I will not be fooled again. Bitcoin Cash will not be co-opted easily as long as I am here.
}- Because if Bitcoin Cash community is an organism, then I became a B lymphocyte cell. I produce antibodies. I show you how to defend yourself from bullshit, lies and manipulation. This is my basic function.
}- Because I am here to kill the bank
submitted by ShadowOfHarbringer to btc [link] [comments]

I recently recounted the history of the block size controversy for someone and thought I'd repost it here

Bitcoin development was initially led by an anonymous figure named Satoshi Nakamoto who created the project "Bitcoin: a Peer-to-peer Electronic Cash System"
The project mostly languished in obscurity until in late 2010 it was revealed that Bitcoin was being used to evade the ban on Wikileaks contributions. (A good summary of Bitcoin's early history can be found here.)
Satoshi was opposed to Bitcoin being used for something as controversial as funding Wikileaks, and in one of his last messages, wrote "It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet's nest, and the swarm is headed towards us." (link). Satoshi vanished shortly thereafter.
When Satoshi disappeared, he left the project effectively in the control of Gavin Andresen, one of the early contributors to the project. Gavin has been characterized as something of a naive academic. It wasn't long before Gavin had been approached by the CIA and agreed to visit and do a presentation. So we know that Bitcoin was on the CIA's radar by 2011.
Bitcoin-as-introduced had an Achilles heel. To prevent a specific kind of denial-of-service attack, Satoshi had added a "block size limit" to prevent flooding attacks. Satoshi's plan was to raise the limit as usage increased. Satoshi and the early Bitcoiners such as myself did not envision that the limit might itself be a vulnerability. A near-complete history of the block size limit controversy is here. I'll attempt to summarize my experience with some references.
Now it's almost 2020, and by now we've all become much more attuned to the scope of what three-letter-agencies have been doing to manipulate social media platforms. But in 2012 that was tinfoil-hat stuff across most of the internet.
In 2012, the Bitcoin subreddit was one of the key places people went for discussion about what was happening in Bitcoin. That, and the bitcointalk forum. The history of what happened has been well documented with sources in places like here and here.
The TLDR is
Throughout all of this, Blockstream steadfastly argued that it didn't control the Bitcoin Core software. Blockstream pointed to Chaincode Labs who funded several key bitcoin developers and the MIT Media Labs "Digital Currency Initiative" who funded Gavin, Cory, and Wladimir. Gavin and Wladimir in particular had the authority to merge changes into the Bitcoin Core software and as such effectively could decide what did and did not go into the software. As an ostensibly academic organization, Gavin and Wladimir etc could act with intellectual honesty and without coercion.
Except Gavin left the Digital Currency Initiative in 2017, saying that while he wasn't pressured to quit, he "didn't want to feel obligated to any person or organization."
Fast forward to 2019, and we learn the fascinating news that the MIT Media Labs were funded in part by none other than Jeffrey Epstein, who it turns out just so happened to be a staunch advocate of the Blockstream approach. So really, Bitcoin development was corralled: Blockstream was paying a bunch of devs, and Blockstream-Friendly MIT Media Labs were paying the others.
If you're still reading this, you probably wonder what it is about the Blockstream strategy that is so "bad." Aren't they just proposing a different way to solve Bitcoin's problems?
The original idea for Bitcoin was a "peer to peer cash system" - - the idea being that if Alice wants to buy something from Bob, she can just give him some tokens - - just like cash.
The new vision of bitcoin promoted by Blockstream and Core is "store of value". Under this model, you buy Bitcoins like you might speculate on gold - you buy some and you hold it. Later, if you want to purchase something, you sell your Bitcoins for some other payment method (or use an IOU against a deposit, just like a bank), and use that for purchases.
It should be apparent after a moment of thought that the original concept (Alice hands Bob some cash which Bob can then spend how he likes) is vastly more disruptive than the model in which Alice buys Bitcoin on a government-regulated exchange, holds them hoping they'll appreciate in value, and then sells them for Euros or dollars. In model one, the currency is essentially outside the domain of gatekeepers, and could completely disintermediate the entire existing financial system just like Napster for money. In model two, Bitcoin is no more disruptive than shares of a gold fund.
submitted by jessquit to btc [link] [comments]

A California man named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto denies having anything to do with Bitcoin. H BREAKING: BITCOIN DIP CAUSED BY WIKILEAKS DUMPING BITCOIN! EXPOSING JULIAN ASSANGE BITCOIN WALLETS! (Audiobook) The Original Bitcoin White Paper by Satoshi Nakamoto Unmasking Satoshi? or Big Block Propaganda? You be the Judge! #BITCOIN 10 AÑOS  Gracias Satoshi Nakamoto  #HappyBirthdayBitcoin

Bitcoin SV is the original Bitcoin. It restores the original Bitcoin protocol, will keep it stable, and allow it to massively scale. Bitcoin SV will maintain the vision set out by Satoshi Nakamoto’s white paper in 2008: Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. These works serve to contextualize Bitcoin into the broader story of cryptography and freedom. Title Formats Author Date "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" HTML PDF Link: Satoshi Nakamoto: October 31, 2008 "b-money" HTML txt Link: Wei Dai: November 1998 "Design of a Secure Timestamping Service with Minimal Trust Requirements" PDF The Bitcoin founder is still unknown. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name, by which scientific work setting forward theoretical foundations about bitcoin is signed, so that it is unclear whether it is a pseudonym or not. On a P2P Foundation profile, he claimed to be a man living in Japan, born on 5 April 1975. * In Block 124724, user midnightmagic mined a solo block to himself which underpaid the reward by a single Satoshi and simultaneously destroyed the block's fees. This is one of two only known reductions in the total mined supply of Bitcoin. Therefore, from block 124724 onwards, all total supply estimates must technically be reduced by 1 Satoshi. Bitcoin is an internet based crypto currency introduced in the world with the article "Bitcoin: Peer-to- Peer Electronic Payment System" published by a person or group using the name of Satoshi

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A California man named Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto denies having anything to do with Bitcoin. H

"I Believe Everyone Knows Who Satoshi Is at Bitcoin Core" is a ridiculous statement. NDA's don't stretch that far! And this is the reason why Gavin called Craig Wright Satoshi, ... LOS ANGELES _ Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto denied Thursday that he is the creator of bitcoin. Newsweek published a 4,500-word cover story claiming Nakamoto is the person who wrote the computer ... Julian Assange Satoshi Connection & Wikileaks Bitcoin & Crypto Pioneer - Duration: 24:09. The Crypto Lark 21,643 views. 24:09. #Bitcoin 10 años #HappyBirthdayBitcoin, un exitoso experimento que nos esta cambiando la forma en que transferimos y resguardamos valor, gracias Satoshi Naka... Bitcoin - Wikipedia - An Overview ... The overall number of bitcoins in circulation is gradually approaching the limitation of 21 million set in 2009 by Bitcoin's creator, Satoshi Nakamoto. If the ...